The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has imposed a four-year ban on Russia from all global sport, including the 2020 Olympics and the 2022 World Cup finals.
WADA’s executive committee took the decision after concluding Moscow had tampered with laboratory data.
The agency found Russia planted fake evidence and deleted files linked to positive doping tests that could have helped identify drug cheats.
Russia has 21 days to appeal the decision through the Court of Arbitration for Sport.
Individual Russian athletes untainted by the scandal will still be able to compete in competitions independently under a neutral flag.
It is unclear whether those who play team sports such as football will be able to play under a neutral flag.
Chair of the compliance review committee (CRC) said, “There will not be a Russian flag and the athletes will not be participating as representatives of Russia.”
“The details from sport to sport will have to differ because some are team sports, some are individual sports, so there is going to have to be a case by case basis.”
Russia has been hit with the ban after agreeing to allow WADA investigators into its laboratory in Moscow.
The investigators found that data there had been manipulated.
Russia will still be able to compete at the Euro 2020 football tournament next summer, which it has qualified for and is a tournament host with games due to be played at St. Petersburg.